So, I've looked this problem for 2hrs. Now my head is spinning. I tried to use a Hashmap to create a frequency table. My intentions were to have the bytes read in as keys and the values to be the occurences of the byte. Here is my thought process: 1) read all bytes and saved into a list 2) used map.putIfAbsent(). to add the first occurence of K,V pairs into the map. 3) updated the first ocurrence to 1. 4) if the K,V pair is in the hashmap, i updated the Value by using map.replace(key, value) with the old value being incremented by 1. I printed the hashmap to see my work on on line 36. What i am having problems with is determining the minimum from a hashmap. I expect that i should compare the values in the hashmap; but I am fried and need a boost on how I should proceed with that. I welcome all feedback!