Stages of the life cycle of a software product

The development of high-quality software requires a number of factors: a qualified team, workflow planning, product compliance with customer expectations, meeting deadlines.

1. Requirements analysis

This stage can be considered one of the most important. The success of the project depends on it. It all starts with the formation of the goal of the project. Then a list of tasks to be completed and the scope of the future software are put. After that, the conditions, deadline and budget of the project are clarified. At the final stage of the first stage, the technical task for the development team is approved.

2. Design phase

Design begins with the definition of the application architecture, its functions, requirements for functionality and interface. Then the functions are distributed between the program and users, the requirements for various components are taken into account. Product design must take into account the customer's expectations and the possibility of their practical implementation.

Further, the development of the software specification begins, the most optimal system architecture, DBMS, data storage option is selected, compatibility with the equipment, the software implementation process and the list of operating documents are determined.

3. Code writing

At this stage, a prototype of the finished product and its components is created, the data structure and program codes are developed. Then testing is carried out and technical documentation is written. The result of this stage is the emergence of a viable version of the product, available for testing and debugging.

4. Testing and debugging

This process is inherently linked to design and operation. It uses mechanisms that allow you to test software for compliance with the requirements for it. This step also includes checking the supporting documentation.

The successful outcome of testing should be the elimination of all detected errors in the application and the creation of a report on its quality.

5. Operation and maintenance

The transition to the operation of software involves its installation, user training and documentation. Software operation is supported by the developer's technical support team.

Maintenance includes adapting the application to new work requirements, adding changes to the code and accompanying documentation, if this is required due to the discovery of bugs or based on the requirements in the modification. Making changes to the software involves maintaining its core functionality.

Decommissioning of software may occur due to its obsolescence, the appearance of more modern products on the market, or for other reasons.

Technical problems encountered in software development

Why are life cycle models needed? Isn't it better to just create a reliable product with uptime? It turns out that the development of a software life cycle model helps to solve four development problems at once:

Misunderstanding what users need. A product developer may have a misconception about the state of the market and the needs for his product among users.

Debugging. When a bug is discovered in a program, having a software life cycle model helps you quickly identify what the problem is and the most likely ways to fix it.

Too fast changing market conditions. A product that is relevant now may become obsolete in six months. An application with more functionality or a more user-friendly interface may appear on the market. The software development cycle helps keep track of trends, which makes it easier to understand how to improve the application if user preferences have changed.

Safety. This is one of the main development problems. As a rule, the error is difficult to find before the product is put into operation. The discovery of a bug after the release of the software leads to significant financial losses for the business. The development life cycle speeds up the search for and elimination of security loopholes. Although this does not eliminate, it significantly reduces threats.

As a result, at the initial stages, development becomes more efficient, its cost is reduced and the product release is accelerated.

Approaches to software development

There are several approaches to software development. Quite often, their adaptation takes place based on the current situation: requirements for compliance with deadlines, reliability, safety, cost of work, qualifications of team members. Among the most famous approaches it is worth highlighting:

  • Code and fix - writing code and fixing bugs in it;
  • Waterfall Model - cascade or "waterfall";
  • V-model - development through testing;
  • Incremental Model - incremental model;
  • Iterative Model - iterative model;
  • Spiral Model - spiral model;
  • Agile Model is an agile development methodology.

The code and fix model is the simplest. The developer writes the program code, runs it. Then see how it works. If a bug is found, it fixes it. Most likely, you have already mastered this model, so let's move on to the rest.