1. Integer
class
Integer
is also good in that it is a class, which means that it can have fields and methods. And, of course, it has them. A lot of them — dozens of them. Here we'll consider the most basic ones.
The Integer
class has two fields that contain the maximum and minimum possible values of the int
type:
Field  Description 


Maximum possible value of the int type 

Minimum possible value of the int type 
Sometimes you want to assign the smallest or largest possible int
value to a variable. To avoid cluttering up your code with incomprehensible constants, you can write this very clearly as follows:
Code  Description 



The Integer
class also has some interesting methods. Here they are:
Methods  Description 


Returns a string that is the hexadecimal representation of the number 

Returns a string that is the binary representation of the number 

Returns a string that is the octal representation of the number 

Wraps the passed int in an Integer object 

Returns the number obtained from the passed string 
You previously encountered the static Integer.parseInt()
method. Let's recall how it works:
int name = Integer.parseInt(string);
If a string containing a number (only digits) is passed to the parseInt()
method, it will parse the string and return the number it contains.
The rest of the methods are also useful. For example, some of them can convert a passed number to a string containing the binary, octal or hexadecimal representation of the number.
2. Double
class
In general, the Double
class is similar to the Integer
class, only it wraps a double
rather than an int
. It also has fields and methods that will be of interest to us. Consider a few of them:
The Double
class has six interesting fields:
Field  Description 


Negative infinity 

Positive infinity 

Minimum possible exponent (2^{x}) 

Maximum possible exponent (2^{x}) 

Minimum possible value of the double type 

Maximum possible value of the double type 
Infinity
If you divide 1.0
by 0.0
, you get negative infinity. If you divide 1.0
by 0.0
, you get positive infinity. Not only can you divide a double
by zero, but you can also use it store the result of these operations.
Exponent of a double
Understanding the exponent is easy. Internally, a double consists of a mantissa and an exponent. But here the value of the exponent is not 10^{x}
, but 2^{x}
. Thus, if the exponent increases by 1
, the total value of the number will double.
MIN_EXPONENT == 1024
, which means 2^{1024}
, which is approximately equal to 10^{308}
And of course, the Double
class has interesting methods:
Methods  Description 


Returns a string that is the hexadecimal representation of the number 

Checks whether the passed number is infinity. 

Checks whether the passed number is NaN 

Wraps the passed double in a Double object 

Returns the number obtained from the passed string 
Interestingly, there is an isInfinite()
method that returns true
if the passed number is positive or negative infinity.
The isNaN()
method is similar — it checks whether the passed number is NaN
(NotaNumber, a special constant that indicates an undefined value).
3. Character
class
The Character
class is interesting primarily for its large number of static utility methods that let you check whether characters belong to various categories.
Examples
Methods  Description 


Checks whether a character is an alphabetic character 

Checks whether the character is a letter 

Checks whether the character is a digit 

Checks whether the character is a space, a line break, or a page break (codes: 12, 13, 14) 

Checks whether the character is whitespace: a space, tab, etc. 

Checks whether the character is lowercase 

Checks whether the character is uppercase 

Converts the character to lowercase 

Converts the character to uppercase 
A feature of these methods is that they work with all known alphabets: Arabic numerals are classified as digits, etc.
4. Boolean
class
The Boolean
type is virtually the same as the boolean
type. The differences are minimal.
Below we show a simplified version of the Boolean
class:
Code  Description 


Constants: TRUE and FALSE
Variable Boolean class constructor
The method returns the value of the internal variable This static method converts true to TRUE and false to FALSE .

The Boolean
type has two constants (two fields):
Constants of the class  Counterpart for the boolean type  Description 



true 


false 
You can work with them in the same way that you work with the boolean
type:
Code  Note 


The Boolean class is the only class that can be written inside a condition 

All three variables are equal to true /TRUE 

Constants can be compared using both equals and ==
This will also work. 
Autoboxing works great here. That means you can use this type in the same way as the boolean
type — there are no pitfalls to watch out for.
How it is written  How it works 



And here a comparison of the boolean
and Boolean
types:
boolean a = true;
Boolean b = true; // b will be equal to Boolean.TRUE
Boolean c = true; // c will be equal to Boolean.TRUE
a == b; // true (compared by value)
a == c; // true (compared by value)
b == c; // true (compared by reference, but they point to the same object)
If you really need an independent Boolean
object, then you need to create it explicitly:
boolean a = true;
Boolean b = new Boolean(true); // New Boolean object
Boolean c = true; // c will be equal to Boolean.TRUE
a == b; // true (compared by value)
a == c; // true (compared by value)
b == c; // false (compared by reference, and they point to different objects)
One more example, where we'll use a Boolean
inside of an if
:
Code  Note 


This will compile and work 
This will compile, but it won't work!
Code  Note 


Error. This line will throw an exception 
5. Caching values during autoboxing
There are some pitfalls related to integer wrapper types.
As you already know, if we compare an int
and an Integer
, the Integer
is converted to an int
:
How it is written  How it works 



If you compare two Integer
objects with each other, they are not converted to int
s:
Code  Console output 



a == c
and b == c
, but a != b
, because when we compare a
and b
we are comparing references. Which is essentially what we would expect.
Surprise
But if we replace 500
with 100
, then we get a completely different result:
Code  Console output 



The issue here is that a new Integer
object is not always actually created during autoboxing. Objects are cached for values 128
through 127
inclusive.
The Integer
class has a hidden array that stores objects: Integer(128)
, Integer(127)
, ... Integer(126)
, Integer(127)
If you write Integer x = 128
, then the autoboxing process creates a new object, but if you write Integer x = 127
, then the autoboxing process retrieves the existing object from the cache (from the array).
If you don't want the Integer
object to come from the cache, you will have to create it explicitly by writing: Integer x = new Integer(127);
All wrapper types have such a cache: Integer
, Long
, Byte
, Short
, Boolean
. For the Boolean
type, its TRUE
and FALSE
values are both constants, so they are also essentially cached.
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